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Saturday, May 7

  1. page 13. Digestion edited Digestion Chapter Summary:In this chapter, we learned all about the digestive process that our b…
    Digestion
    Chapter Summary:In this chapter, we learned all about the digestive process that our bodies go through to convert our food into energy. The digestive system is also responsible for removing waste products from our system as well as reabsorbing water from our fecal matter in the large intestine. The digestive system is very long but is coiled up in order to fit within our abdominal cavity. The digestive system begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.
    Structure:
    The

    The
    digestive system
    ...
    wave-like muscle contractions.contractions.The esophagus then leads to the stomach. The stomach empties into the duodenum which is the first part of the small intestine. The small intestine then leads into the large intestine and waste products are excreted from the anus.
    {digestionatlas.gif}

    Application to Nursing:
    Understanding digestion has a lot of applications to the field of nursing. We often have patients who are older and their bowls have slowed down due to age and because of lack of overall body water. In the critical care unit where I work, we have seriously ill patients who are sometimes on ventilators and may not eat for days or even weeks because of surgery and being intubated. The lack of food intake along with the lack of activity can cause constipation for these patients. The nurse mu be aware of this and be able to intervene to help the patient produce a bowel movement. Patients will often have a nasogastric or and orogastric tube in place while in the critical care unit. They are used for a variety of reasons. Usually the tube is hooked up to low suction and provides that suction intermittently to clear out a patients stomach contents. The nurse must know what to expect the gastric juices to look like on a normal basis so that they may be more alert to gastric juices that are abnormal looking. Bowel sounds are part of a usual patient assessment. Nurses must be aware of what these bowel sounds implicate. The bowel sound can be normally active, which is around 3 sounds in 15 seconds. They can also be hypoactive which is less than 3 sounds per 15 seconds, or hyperactive which is more than 3 sounds per 15 seconds.
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    4:44 pm
  2. 4:44 pm
  3. page 13. Digestion edited Digestion ... the anus. Structure: Structure: The digestive system begins at the mou…
    Digestion
    ...
    the anus. Structure:
    Structure:
    The digestive system begins at the mouth. In the mouth is where the early breakdown of food occurs. This occurs by chewing. Chewing is also known as mastication. Food that is chewed then travels down the esophagus and is pushed down to the stomach by wave-like muscle contractions.

    Application to Nursing:
    Understanding digestion has a lot of applications to the field of nursing. We often have patients who are older and their bowls have slowed down due to age and because of lack of overall body water. In the critical care unit where I work, we have seriously ill patients who are sometimes on ventilators and may not eat for days or even weeks because of surgery and being intubated. The lack of food intake along with the lack of activity can cause constipation for these patients. The nurse mu be aware of this and be able to intervene to help the patient produce a bowel movement. Patients will often have a nasogastric or and orogastric tube in place while in the critical care unit. They are used for a variety of reasons. Usually the tube is hooked up to low suction and provides that suction intermittently to clear out a patients stomach contents. The nurse must know what to expect the gastric juices to look like on a normal basis so that they may be more alert to gastric juices that are abnormal looking. Bowel sounds are part of a usual patient assessment. Nurses must be aware of what these bowel sounds implicate. The bowel sound can be normally active, which is around 3 sounds in 15 seconds. They can also be hypoactive which is less than 3 sounds per 15 seconds, or hyperactive which is more than 3 sounds per 15 seconds.
    (view changes)
    4:41 pm
  4. page 13. Digestion edited Digestion Chapter Summary: Chapter Summary:In this chapter, we learned all about the digestive…
    Digestion
    Chapter Summary:Chapter Summary:In this chapter, we learned all about the digestive process that our bodies go through to convert our food into energy. The digestive system is also responsible for removing waste products from our system as well as reabsorbing water from our fecal matter in the large intestine. The digestive system is very long but is coiled up in order to fit within our abdominal cavity. The digestive system begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. Structure:
    Application to Nursing:
    Understanding digestion has a lot of applications to the field of nursing. We often have patients who are older and their bowls have slowed down due to age and because of lack of overall body water. In the critical care unit where I work, we have seriously ill patients who are sometimes on ventilators and may not eat for days or even weeks because of surgery and being intubated. The lack of food intake along with the lack of activity can cause constipation for these patients. The nurse mu be aware of this and be able to intervene to help the patient produce a bowel movement. Patients will often have a nasogastric or and orogastric tube in place while in the critical care unit. They are used for a variety of reasons. Usually the tube is hooked up to low suction and provides that suction intermittently to clear out a patients stomach contents. The nurse must know what to expect the gastric juices to look like on a normal basis so that they may be more alert to gastric juices that are abnormal looking. Bowel sounds are part of a usual patient assessment. Nurses must be aware of what these bowel sounds implicate. The bowel sound can be normally active, which is around 3 sounds in 15 seconds. They can also be hypoactive which is less than 3 sounds per 15 seconds, or hyperactive which is more than 3 sounds per 15 seconds.
    (view changes)
    3:04 pm
  5. page 12. Urology edited ... Micrutrition: Micrutrition is also known as urination. This process is controlled within the …
    ...
    Micrutrition:
    Micrutrition is also known as urination. This process is controlled within the urinary system. As the bladder fills, sensory receptors are triggered and a message is sent to close the external urethral sphincter preventing premature urinary release. The bladder will reach a point where it is sufficiently stretched and this will evoke a voiding reflex. The voiding reflex will stimulate the detrusor muscle which is the muscle that surrounds the bladder producing contractions to force urine out of the bladder. A person has voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter. When a person decides that it is time to urinate, the external urinary sphincter will be relaxed and voiding will occur.
    Polycystic Kidney Disorder:
    PKD is an inherited kidney disorder that is passed down from parent to child. PKD is a disorder that is characterized by multiple cysts on the kidneys causing them to become very large in size. These cysts form clusters and can impair kidney function. The disorder also causes the overproduction of erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production. A person with PKD will often have too many blood cells in their body which can lead to high blood pressure, brain aneurysms and cysts of the liver and pancreas. Symptoms of PKD include flank pain on one or both sides, blood in the urine, abdominal pain and increased urine at night. Below is a picture of two kidneys that were removed from a person with PKD. Each weighed approximately 16-18 pounds.
    {polycystic_kidney_disease.JPG}

    Application to Nursing:
    Nurses must be aware of changes in a patients urinary status.This includes an increase or decrease in urine output, urinary retention, or dysuria. Each of these can signify problems that a physician needs to be made aware of. One thing that if often checked on patients is their creatinine clearance. The creatinine clearanceis a measure of how well the kidneys are functioning. The higher the creatinine clearance is, the better the kidneys are functioning. The lower the creatinine clearance is, the worse the kidneys are functioning. This is because the creatinine clearence is a measure of the rate at which the creatinine is flushed from the kidneys. If a patient is going to have a procedure done that requires any type of dye (say a contrast CT scan), the creatinine level of the blood and the creatinine clearance will be checked. This is checked because it needs to be determined before any test is done if the patient will be able to properly flush out the dye from their system. Creatinine is a product that is produced by the kidneys and in normal functioning kidneys, creatinine levels should remain constant and relatively low. By knowing how well a patient's kidney are functioning ahead of time, the nurse is able to determine if a patient should have a test done or not if it includes contrast dye.
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    2:38 pm
  6. page 12. Urology edited ... Chapter Summary: In this chapter, we learned all about urinary function. This chapter detaile…
    ...
    Chapter Summary:
    In this chapter, we learned all about urinary function. This chapter detailed how the kidneys process filtrate and filters out waste products and creates urine. This chapter also detailed the electrolytes that must be maintained in order to maintain proper bodily function.
    Structure of the Urinary System:The urinary system consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra. Blood is circulated into the kidneys where urine is created and waste products are removed. The urine then travels down through the ureters into the urinary bladder and out the urethra. Within the kidneys are micro structures called nephrons. It is within the nephrons where the filtration all takes place.
    {kidneys.jpg} {nephron.jpg}

    Micrutrition:
    Micrutrition is also known as urination. This process is controlled within the urinary system. As the bladder fills, sensory receptors are triggered and a message is sent to close the external urethral sphincter preventing premature urinary release. The bladder will reach a point where it is sufficiently stretched and this will evoke a voiding reflex. The voiding reflex will stimulate the detrusor muscle which is the muscle that surrounds the bladder producing contractions to force urine out of the bladder. A person has voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter. When a person decides that it is time to urinate, the external urinary sphincter will be relaxed and voiding will occur.
    (view changes)
    2:28 pm
  7. file nephron.jpg uploaded
    2:28 pm
  8. file kidneys.jpg uploaded
    2:26 pm
  9. page 12. Urology edited Urology Chapter Summary: In this chapter, we learned all about urinary function. This chapter de…
    Urology
    Chapter Summary:
    In this chapter, we learned all about urinary function. This chapter detailed how the kidneys process filtrate and filters out waste products and creates urine. This chapter also detailed the electrolytes that must be maintained in order to maintain proper bodily function.
    Micrutrition:
    Micrutrition is also known as urination. This process is controlled within the urinary system. As the bladder fills, sensory receptors are triggered and a message is sent to close the external urethral sphincter preventing premature urinary release. The bladder will reach a point where it is sufficiently stretched and this will evoke a voiding reflex. The voiding reflex will stimulate the detrusor muscle which is the muscle that surrounds the bladder producing contractions to force urine out of the bladder. A person has voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter. When a person decides that it is time to urinate, the external urinary sphincter will be relaxed and voiding will occur.
    ...
    {4-kidneys.jpg}
    Essential Question:
    ...
    will not occur.occur.When secretion occurs, waste products are secreted into the urine and the body gets rid of them through urination. Alcohol is a toxin that is filtered out of the blood stream via the kidneys and the secreted into the urine and voided out. Excretion is the equivalent of filtration-reabsorbtion + secretion. Excretion is the total discharging of waste products from the blood.
    The electrolytes
    ...
    to ensure that a potassium deficiency does not occur. High potassium levels are usually not an issue for people who have normally functioning kidneys and who are not on potassium supplement therapy. The kidneys ca secret out any excess potassium that the body may be carrying. In people with decreased kidney function excess potassium can pose a major threat to their system. Cardiac arrhythmia is the most serious complication that can arise from excessive potassium levels. Bicarbonate is another important electrolyte that must be present in the body. Bicarbonate is essential for keeping the blood at a safe pH level. If there is not enough bicarbonate in the bloodstream, the blood could become too acidic. Bicarbonate also keeps the blood from becoming too basic.
    (view changes)
    2:14 pm

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